PCVs Lower Pneumonia Hospitalization Rates in Young Children
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) PCV10 and PCV13 are associated with decreased rates of hospitalization for clinically and radiologically confirmed pneumonia among young children, especially in children younger than 24 months, according to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis.
For their analysis, the researchers assessed 12 articles that had reported the incidence of hospitalization for pneumonia prior to and after the introduction of PCV10 or PCV13 into the immunization program.
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A random-effects meta-analytic model was used to calculate pooled estimates of incidence rate ratio (IRR). Results were categorized by age groups of less than 24 months and 24-59 months, and by case definitions of clinically and radiologically confirmed pneumonia.
Results indicated that hospitalization rates had decreased by 17% for clinically confirmed pneumonia, and by 31% for radiologically confirmed pneumonia following the introduction of novel PCVs among children younger than 24 months. In children ages 24 to 59 months, hospitalization rates declined by 9% for clinically confirmed pneumonia, and by 24% for radiologically confirmed pneumonia following the introduction of novel PCVs.
The researchers observed high heterogeneity among studies that had assessed the hospitalization rate for clinically and radiologically confirmed pneumonia.
“The results of this study revealed a significant impact of PCV10 and PCV13 in reducing the hospitalizations for pneumonia, particularly in children aged [younger than 24 months] and for radiologically confirmed disease,” the researchers concluded. “Further appropriately designed studies, comparing the impact of PCV10 and PCV13, are needed in order to obtain solid data on which to establish future immunization strategies.”
Alicino C, Paganino C, Orsi A, et al. The impact of 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on hospitalization for pneumonia in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2017;35(43):5776-5785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.005.