risk factors

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency Risk Factors in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) may be associated with several risk factors, such as smoking and malnutrition, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

To address the paucity of information on risk factors for EPI in chronic pancreatitis and related complications, researchers collected data from the Scandinavian Baltic Pancreatic Club Database. Among the data included was demographics, EPI status, risk factors for chronic pancreatitis, related complications, and surgical and endoscopic treatment. Researchers assessed associations by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

The study included 1869 patients, and EPI was found in 849 individuals (45%.) From multivariate analyses, researchers found that EPI was associated with chronic pancreatitis via smoking (odds ratio [OR]=1.47; 95% CI 1.20-1.79; P < .001) and nutritional or metabolic (OR=0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.87; P = .01) etiologies. Pancreatic or common bile duct stenting (OR=1.44; 95% CI, 1.15-1.80; P = .002) and pancreatic resection (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.02-2.33; P = .04) were both found to be associated with EPI, as were diabetes mellitus (OR=2.45; 95% CI, 1.92-3.15; P < .001), bile duct stenosis (OR=1.48; 95% CI, 1.09-2.00; P = .02), and underweight (OR=2.05; 95% CI, 1.40-3.02; P < .001).

Therefore, the researchers advised that “intensive nutritional surveillance is needed in these patients.”


—Ellen Kurek



Erchinger F, Engjom T, Dimcevski G, et al. Exocrine pancreas insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis – risk factors and association with complications. A multicentre study of 1869 patients. Pancreatology. Published online February 16, 2022. Accessed March 28, 2022. doi:10.1016/j.pan.2022.02.003