Allergic, Eosinophilic Asthma Patients Have Better COVID-19 Outcomes
Patients with allergic and eosinophilic asthma had a better COVID-19 disease course and less risk of hospital admission than those who did not have these asthma phenotypes, according to results of a retrospective study.
Researchers examined the severity of COVID-19 in adults with asthma and the relation between COVID-19 and atopy, clinical and demographic characteristics, phenotypes, and laboratory data obtained from electronic medical records from March 2020 to April 2021. Included were 201 patients who were followed up in 13 allergy departments in Spain after being diagnosed with COVID-19 infection by use of a validated detection test. Researchers analyzed lung function and asthma control test results obtained before and after the episode of COVID-19.
Researchers found an association between advanced age, elevated D-dimer, fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils, heart disease or hypertension, and the severity of COVID-19. Moreover, having an allergic or mixed allergic and eosinophilic phenotype for asthma or having their biomarkers, including an elevated total immunoglobin E level, aeroallergen sensitization, allergic rhinitis, or blood eosinophilia, were associated with fewer admissions to the hospital.
In contrast, poor control of asthma and a lower forced expiratory volume in the first second were associated with a worse COVID-19 prognosis.
“Asthmatic patients with allergic and eosinophilic phenotype have a better evolution of COVID-19 and lower risk of admissions,” researchers concluded. “Older patients, cardiovascular comorbidities, [aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease], and eosinopenia are related to severity [of] COVID-19.”
Habernau Mena A, García-Moguel I, Vazquez de la Torre Gaspar M, et al. COVID-19 course in allergic asthma patients: a Spanish cohort analysis. J Asthma Allergy. 2022;15:257-264. doi:10.2147/JAA.S344934